Fellow Canadian here. Here's what most Canadian digital nomads are doing in similar circumstances. Assuming you still have a Canadian bank account, you can get paid normally by the company, or you can invoice them from your own name, no need to to register as a company (unless you want to, if so there's a slightly different answer). If they are paying you directly as an employee, they should automatically be deducting income taxes from your gross income and you don't really need to worry about anything. If they are paying you as a freelancer under your personal name (not an employee), you will need to set aside the correct amount of this income to pay income taxes.
To figure out the correct amount of Canadian income tax to save/pay, you need to look at the 2017 federal income tax rate, and your provinces 2017 income tax rate. Basically the more you make, the more you have to save/pay. If you are earning more than $30,000 CAD per year as a freelancer, you will need to register with the CRA and may have to start charging sales tax on the services you render.
Please keep in mind that working remotely in foreign countries, getting paid and paying taxes as detailed above, may not be technically legal in the countries you are visiting. Most people do the above and just say they are visiting for tourist/pleasure reasons even while earning income from Canada. Unfortunately most countries do not have laws that are up to date with modern day remote workers. Many countries are very difficult to legally work remotely in.
Let me know if you have any other questions!
Adventuring Digital Nomad - Experienced Digital Marketer - Google Guru
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